Skip to main content
Original Article

The Negative Consequences of Stuttering for Perceptions of Leadership Ability

Published Online:https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000336

Abstract. The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research concerning the negative perceptions of stuttering by considering the perceived leadership ability of targets who stuttered compared with targets who did not stutter. We were also interested in the possibility that negative perceptions of the targets (i.e., low levels of self-esteem, intelligence, dominance-based status motivation, and prestige-based status motivation) would mediate the association between stuttering and a lack of perceived leadership ability as well as the possibility that manipulating the ostensible self-esteem level of the target would further moderate these associations. The results for 838 Israeli community members revealed a negative association between stuttering and perceived leadership ability that was mediated by the perceived self-esteem level and dominance-based status motivation of the target. Further, the associations between stuttering and perceptions of leadership ability were moderated by the ostensible self-esteem level of the target. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for understanding the negative halo that surrounds stuttering.

References

  • Blood, G. W., & Blood, I. M. (2004). Bullying in adolescents who stutter: Communicative competence and self-esteem. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 31(Spring), 69–79. https://doi.org/10.1044/cicsd_31_S_69 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Blood, G. W., Blood, I. M., Tellis, G. M., & Gabel, R.M. (2003). A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28(2), 143–159. https://doi.org/S0094-730X(03)00010-X First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bloodstein, O., & Ratner, N. B. (2008). A handbook of stuttering (6th ed.). Thomson Delmar Learning. First citation in articleGoogle Scholar

  • Borkenau, P., & Liebler, A. (1995). Observable attributes as manifestations and cues of personality and intelligence. Journal of Personality, 63(1), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1995.tb00799.x First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bosson, J. K., Brown, R. P., Zeigler-Hill, V., & Swann, W. B. (2003). Self-enhancement tendencies among people with high explicit self-esteem: The moderating role of implicit self-esteem. Self and Identity, 2(3), 169–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860309029 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Boyle, M. P. (2013). Psychological characteristics and perceptions of stuttering of adults who stutter with and without support group experience. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 38(4), 368–381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2013.09.001 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Case, C. R., Bae, K. K., & Maner, J. K. (2018). To lead or to be liked: When prestige-oriented leaders prioritize popularity over performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(4), 657–676. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000138 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Case, C. R., & Maner, J. K. (2014). Divide and conquer: When and why leaders undermine the cohesive fabric of their group. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(6), 1033–1050. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038201 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chemers, M. M., Watson, C. B., & May, S. T. (2000). Dispositional affect and leadership effectiveness: A comparison of self-esteem, optimism, and efficacy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(3), 267–277. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167200265001 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cheng, J. T., Tracy, J. L., & Henrich, J. (2010). Pride, personality, and the evolutionary foundations of human social status. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(5), 334–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.02.004 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Davis, S., Howell, P., & Cooke, F. (2002). Sociodynamic relationships between children who stutter and their non‐stuttering classmates. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(7), 939–947. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00093 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dickerson, A., & Taylor, M. A. (2000). Self-limiting behavior in women: Self-esteem and self-efficacy as predictors. Group and Organization Management, 25(2), 191–210. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601100252006 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hayes, A. F. (2018). An introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis (2nd ed.). Guilford Press. First citation in articleGoogle Scholar

  • Henrich, J., Chudek, M., & Boyd, R. (2015). The Big Man Mechanism: How prestige fosters cooperation and creates prosocial leaders. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 370(1683), Article 20150013. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0013 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lange, J., Redford, L., & Crusius, J. (2019). A status-seeking account of psychological entitlement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45(7), 1113–1128. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218808501 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Maner, J. K., & Mead, N. L. (2010). The essential tension between leadership and power: When leaders sacrifice group goals for the sake of self-interest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(3), 482–497. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018559 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 151–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201272002 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Silverman, F. H. (1990). Are professors likely to report having “beliefs” about the intelligence and competence of students who stutter? Journal of Fluency Disorders, 15(5–6), 319–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/0094-730X(90)90046-U First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sorrentino, R. M., & Boutillier, R. G. (1975). The effect of quantity and quality of verbal interaction on ratings of leadership ability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11(5), 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(75)90044-X First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Suessenbach, F., Loughnan, S., Schönbrodt, F. D., & Moore, A. B. (2019). The dominance, prestige, and leadership account of social power motives. European Journal of Personality, 33(1), 7–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.2184 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Van Vugt, M., & Grabo, A. E. (2015). The many faces of leadership: An evolutionary-psychology approach. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(6), 484–489. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721415601971 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zeigler-Hill, V., Besser, A., Myers, E. M., Southard, A. C., & Malkin, M. L. (2013). The status-signaling property of self-esteem: The role of self-reported self-esteem and perceived self-esteem in personality judgments. Journal of Personality, 81(2), 209–220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00790.x First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zeigler-Hill, V., Besser, Y., & Besser, A. (2020). A negative halo effect for stuttering? The consequences of stuttering for romantic desirability are mediated by perceptions of personality traits, self-esteem, and intelligence. Self and Identity, 19(5), 613–628. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2019.1645729 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zeigler-Hill, V., & Myers, E. M. (2009). Is high self-esteem a path to the White House? The implicit theory of self-esteem and the willingness to vote for presidential candidates. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(1), 14–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.08.018 First citation in articleCrossrefGoogle Scholar