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Originalarbeit

Selbstbestimmte Motivation im späten Kindesalter

Zusammenhang mit Sportvereinspartizipation und psychologischen Basisbedürfnissen

Published Online:https://doi.org/10.1026/1612-5010/a000251

Zusammenfassung. Die Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) beschreibt eine gute Vorhersagbarkeit intrinsischer Motivation bei Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen im sportbezogenen Kontext. Studien zu diesen Zusammenhängen der SDT sind im Kindesalter dagegen rar. Deshalb soll die vorliegende Untersuchung zum einen den von Deci und Ryan (2000) vorhergesagten Zusammenhang zwischen psychologischen Basisbedürfnissen und Selbstbestimmung im späten Kindesalter (M = 10.51) überprüfen (N = 252). Zum anderen soll für die bessere Prädizierbarkeit der Sportpartizipation die intrinsische Motivation verschiedener sporttreibenden Gruppen verglichen werden. Mithilfe eines, auf das Kindesalter angepassten, Fragebogens wurden psychologische Basisbedürfnisse und Motivationsregulationen erhoben. Ein Strukturgleichungsmodell zeigt den vorhergesagten Zusammenhang. Es erweist sich, dass ein Unterschied innerhalb dieser Konstrukte zugunsten Sporttreibender aufgrund der Sportvereinspartizipation vorliegt. Weiter zeigen Besuchsanteile der Sportarten schwache Effekte auf motivationale Größen. Grundsätzlich zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass Fragebogenerhebungen zur SDT im späten Kindesalter valide durchgeführt werden können. Dennoch bleibt die Suche nach Gründen und Prädiktoren der Sportvereinspartizipation weiterhin forschungsrelevant.


A Self-Determination Perspective on Sport Club Participation and Basic Psychological Needs in Late Childhood

Abstract. According to self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), there is good predictability of intrinsic motivation in sports-related contexts for adolescents and adults. However, studies regarding this issue in childhood are rare. First, the present study will examine the association between basic psychological needs and self-determination proposed by Deci and Ryan (2000) in late childhood (N = 252, M age = 10.51). Second, for a better understanding of sports participation, the intrinsic motivation between different sporting groups is compared. A questionnaire, adapted for children, assessed basic psychological needs and regulations of motivation. A structural equation model shows the proposed relationship. Members of sport clubs showed more fulfilled basic psychological needs and had higher intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, overall participation in different kinds of sports had weak effects on motivational quantities. These results support the use of questionnaires regarding SDT in late childhood. However, the search for reasons and predictors of sport participation in sport clubs remains relevant.

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